There are a few battles and operations on the eastern front of World War II that are guaranteed to get some kind of reaction. The first, of course, is Stalingrad. The second is the opening of Operation Barbarossa. The “battle of Kursk” or really back-to-back operations Citadel (German offensive) and Kutusov (Russian couner-offensive) is the third in this trilogy of eastern front heavy hitters. Consequently, it’s no surprise that when Platoon Commander made the jump to World War II that it might land on Kursk. We are going to review Platoon Commander Deluxe: Kursk today on WargameHQ!

Game Overview

Platoon Commander Deluxe Kursk Cover

The Platoon Commander series is one that’s been to Korea, the far future, and is headed back to the near past. It is a malleable tactical land combat game that incorporates a lot of what you expect from such a title and only offers a few new twists.

This is intended to stand alongside games like Band of Brothers as a low-complexity broad-strokes quick-playing WW2 tactical game. It is well conceived, like Band of Brothers, and will certainly scratch that itch if someone has it.

Fire & Movement

Tactical wargames are made up of fire and movement at the granular level of a battle. In this case, we’re looking at fire and movement of the eponymous platoons and individual tank groups.

Disrupted units from fire combat
Disrupted units

Units are provided with a basic movement point allowance that is consumed over the course of hex-to-hex movement by the terrain crossed. There are no surprises on the rolling hills and small cities of the eastern front. This is meat and potatoes terrains for wargamers including open, hills, cities, towns, rivers and forests.

The scale of the game ensures that the design doesn’t get literally or figuratively bogged in the minutiae of river crossings, currents, or other terrain related details. Instead, the game opts for the lightest possible rules overhead in all instances.

Line of Sight

A good example of where the game exerts this simplicity is in the way Line of Sight (LOS) is handled. Units draw a line from roughly center of the firing hext to the target hex. Things that make sense to block LOS like hills, trees, or cities do so. In cases where a hex-spine is used, so long as both sides of the LOS string don’t touch blocking terrain it is clear.

Line of Sight blocked by woods
The woods disrupt line of sight here

The end result is a visual check handles most LOS questions and a quick pull of a retractable badge holder is more than enough to settle any disputes. There’s no ASL-esque terrain depiction blocking on a bulging little hedge.

Fire Combat

Like nearly everything Mark H. Walker has put his name on over the years this design is fond of rolling dice. There’s nothing inherently wrong with this method. I actually liked its implementation here only because it means gameplay is quick.

The attacker selects their lead attacking unit (using either Armor Piercing or High Explosive combat values depending on the target), subtracts the target’s armor value, and then applies any positive column shifts. Negative column shifts are applied last for terrain or other considerations like armor rating and a single d10 is rolled. This determines the number of potential hits which are then rolled individually.

In most cases, an attacker will score between 3 – 5 potential hits and a corresponding number of dice are rolled. This is compared against the unit’s morale. Rolling low is preferable in all cases in this game.

Cards!

Showing a few of the cards in the game
Some cards from PC Deluxe Kursk

The game features cards that further streamline complicated systems that overburden other tactical WW2 systems. Cards represent opportunities for initiative swings, artillery bombardment, air strikes, and even inter-player event cancellation cards.

They add some dynamic elements to the game, but it’s pretty clear they add systems like bombardment and airpower without the overhead. Instead, the cards kind of feel tacked onto the design even though they’re a core element of gameplay that will be used each turn. I realize how dumb that sounds!

How can they be both CORE and TACKED-ON?

Essentially, the cards offer a design convenience. What’s not clear, however, is whether their presence is meaningful from a tactical level. After all, what you draw is random and a good string of cards is more powerful than solid tactical play. Consequently, the choices players make are always on the verge of being upset by random forces well outside their control.

I think cards increase the carnage of the game and this game most certainly has that hectic feel of movement and combat happening all the time. You’re challenged to make decisions quickly and react to movement and counter-movement tactics within the course of a single turn.

Focus & Aid Mechanics

The one unique feature here is the ability of players to place Aid (allows 1 or 2 re-rolls of morale when checking hits) and Focus (allows 1 or 2 re-rolls of combat or initiative).

This is a nice way to represent leadership capacity on the battlefield. It SHOULD provide players a bit of a thinker as to where to place these tokens and how to use them. Instead, the game’s simplicity often means that the choices are blatantly obvious to even casual players.

Focus marker showing the single-die re-roll side.

The other oddity here is that these chits don’t seem to be affected by event cards which might have made for more interesting questions of timing. I think my biggest concern is that these don’t feel like powerful tools. Instead, they feel very reactive with the exception of placing a focus marker on the turn record track try to re-roll initiative for the next turn. I was pretty underwhelmed by their influence on the game and while they tackle a little of what leaders in ASL provide, I had hoped they might strike a balance between something akin to the command points of Conflict of Heroes Series or the super-power of multi-unit activation in the Combat Commander Series.

Is it fun?

I had an okay time with the game. It’s a pretty straightforward affair and I don’t think it brings anything novel or new to the table in the way Combat Commander, Conflict of Heroes, Old School Tactical, or Band of Brothers did. I think this could be a matter of expectation and preference more than this simply being a “bad” or “sub-par” game.

The burden of any game to be fun isn’t just in the person across the table. There’s a load to be carried by the game itself. To that end, I don’t think this game offers players frequent enough difficult choices, interesting tactical situations, or a particularly compelling narrative when playing.

The oversimplification of equipment differences across Unit Specific Modifiers and morale just felt odd. Morale especially felt strange to me since it’s supposed to account for both equipment quality and crew training.

The game is solid. It has moments of fun, but not enough that I would argue it’s better than any of the many other predecessors with the same rules overhead or slightly more like Conflict of Heroes from Academy Games.

Instead, the game just sort of exists. Everything about the execution is pretty solid. The biggest gripe I have with the game is that it doesn’t seem to add anything new to tactical World War 2 games and it’s no so much easier than the jump to a meatier one might not be possible.

Morale & Hits

The Russian basic morale is a 3 in the game and the Germans is a 5. I don’t disagree necessarily with their relative ratings. That said, morale values are used to resolve hits.

The workhorse armor in this game is the T34/75 vs the Panzer IV. These tanks, by most accounts, were roughly equal and certainly equal enough in what Platoon Commander is trying to accomplish to justify the equal ratings. The Panzer IV is given a -1 Unit Specific Modifier (USM) to reflect the equipment’s actual performance on the battlefield.

Again, I’m okay so far.

The problem, however, is that though the Russians are likely to score 1 – 2 more successful potential hits on average than the Germans that’s only going to account for, at best 1 more landed hit. Here’s where my problem comes…

The German morale is 5 and we’re rolling D10s where the zero counts as a zero and not a 10. So, there is a 6 in 10 chance that the Germans brush off the potential hit. This is, if unmodified, 1/3rd better than the Russian morale. The -1 USM that results in 1 – 2 more hits (on average) ONLY helps the Russians if they can score greater than 1/3rd more potential hits than the Germans.

In effect, bad luck is amplified to a greater degree for the Russians than it is for the Germans and it’s not entirely clear why that’s the case in this game.

Bad Decisions?

I don’t think this is a bad decision necessarily. The reasoning didn’t land with me and given the already broad strokes the game uses, why not make the morale equal in more of the scenarios? After all, the Germans were on the offensive in Citadel. The Russians had the Germans on the run in two counter-offensives during what generally constitutes the Kursk salient fighting.

Final Thought

There is a place for this game on your shelf if you are keen to try a World War II tactical wargame and you need something light. So many of the complicated and in the weeds details of other similar games are missing. That’s a huge boon if you’re keen to introduce your love of World War II tactical gaming to a friend.

An effort to take a hill.
To take that hill…

The components, game, design, and decisions are solid in the context of what they are.

For a tactical World War II gamer who has played and enjoyed Band of Brothers, Old School Tactical, Conflict of Heroes, Combat Commander, Tactical Combat Series, Panzer Grenadier, Combat Infantry, or any of the other litany of this ilk…you’ve played this game and you’ve probably played one with only a little more overhead and a lot more payoff.

Consequently, I just didn’t find the game all that engaging. It has some great out of the box appeal. You can get it to the table quickly, learn and teach it, and for the first 5 or 6 plays…the game holds together well.

After you repeat a scenario or two a few times, or analyze how the sausage is made in the game…it starts to lose its shine.

Hollandspiele was named as the Publisher of the Year for 2018. As a result, I wanted to get a review out for one of their 2018 releases. Today, we’re looking doing a Great Heathen Army review. This is the fourth game in the Shields and Swords II series and covers 9th, 10th, and 11th century warfare in Britain.

What happened to Shields and Swords I?

Great question! I had the very same question when I first saw the series name. Tom created a few games for One Small Step under the series name Shields & Swords. Tom opted to revise the series and publish this evolution of the original rules under the Hollandspiele banner head.

It is important to note, for those hipsters who were into this series before it was cool, that Shields & Swords II is NOT compatible with its predecessor.

Since releasing Shields & Swords II, the following games have been published by Hollandspiele:

  • The Grunwald Swords
  • House of Normandy
  • Battles on the Ice

Getting Medieval

The Shields & Swords II (SnS2 hereafter) features what I would deem a light wing and command mechanic. Medieval armies are portrayed with two critical characteristics: Quality & Unit Type.

Overhead shot of Great Heathen Army
Overhead shot of the game in action

Units are then arranged by wing which varies by scenario and those wings are issued commands in the form of tokens.

Wings perform commands, which can be modified with the use of a special token and the sides take turns issuing and resolving wing commands. In fact, the series could have been called Medieval Wing Commander, but the Kilrathi were far less effective before the 28th Century.

At Your Command

There are 7 main commands in the game, each of which can be modified to achieve different outcomes. They include move, attack, shield wall, fire (ranged attack), horse, and special.

Closeup of Great Heathen Army
Shield Wall Command in action

Each scenario, and likely game, could be endlessly customized around this mechanic with special rules modifying the way the commands work. This provides maximum flexibility for Russell as he develops the game to fit the battles covered in each title.

The tactical game is centered around picking the right moment for the correct wing in order to exploit a weakness that the enemy has presented. Knowing when and how to do that requires a brief discussion of combat.

Once More Into the Breach!

Combat is equally broad strokes, but to great effect. Units compare unit types to determine die roll modifiers, then look at scenario and command adjustments to their quality. Finally, a single 10-sided die is rolled to achieve an outcome.

Crossing the ford - Great Heathen Army
Can the Mercians hold the ford or will the Viking Eovil break through and escape?

Generally, speaking rolling lower as a higher quality unit in a favorable matchup is rewarded.

Combat outcomes include retreats, step losses, unit elimination and the exchange of casualties. Again, this is pretty standard fare when it comes to wargames.

So…what sets this game apart?

A matter of timing

The tension in the game comes from the scarcity of commands. Each scenario provides you with a combination of the various commands, but never more than two of the same command and that is quite rare. Instead, you will need to balance when you move and attack. Not just when you attack, but also with which wing and against what units.

The result is an undulating wave of wings that crash together, withdraw through retreat or command, and then prepare to crash together again. In the midst of this motion, units break off from each other and savvy players will capitalize on these rare openings.

Timing is everything. Wait too long to put up that shield wall, or time a withdrawal incorrectly and your units will be punished.

A Fine But Fickle Force

Each side is usually presented with a small cadre of veteran units. These make up the nobility and leadership. As a result, they are the leaders to whom the Levy units are bound.

Without leadership, the Levies will break (cue Led Zeppelin?). This is evaluated by wing. Keeping units in proximity to thee veteran units seems much easier than it is in practice. After all, your veteran units are the lords of the battlefield in every possible way. Even light cavalry will suffer a penalty facing off against a veteran unit!

So, savvy players will use their setup to prepare for the eventual tearing apart of their wings by constant melee attacks, retreats, and eliminations.

Bonus Time!

The chit that mixes this up is the Bonus command. Paired with any command, it offers a special ability that can be a difference maker. Combined with the attack chit, it allows the wing to fight a “Pitched Battle” adding to each unit’s quality. Use the bonus with a shield wall, and the wing can draw away from an enemy line while retaining the defensive advantage of the shield wall.

The bonus chit helps the viking force race to the ford with double movement!

In short, it’s a difference maker. Timed well, it’s a game changer. This is especially true when considering the movement bonus which allows for a second round of movement. As your wing seizes the advantage by splitting the enemy’s wing into isolated groups you will cackle with glee.

Impressionist Painting

As you have, no doubt, guessed. This game is about broad strokes as a low-complexity game. Don’t be fooled. While simplistic systems are individually easy to teach and play, they fit together in such a way that you are called back to the table for one more turn, or one more scenario.

Look to a series like Men of Iron from GMT Games if you want a more robust handling of medieval tactical combat. Men of Iron inherits much of the Great Battles of History mechanics.

Shields and Swords II, on the other hand, provides a complete feeling game on a rules and time budget. Great Heathen Army makes an outstanding introductory wargame if you can get friends hooked on Netflix’s The Last Kingdom. In fact, you can start them off fighting Ethealdon which is featured in season 1 of the show.

Historical Accuracy

Great Heathen Army has the trappings necessary to suspend disbelief. While the game won’t reveal the subtle realities of medieval combat, you will get a feel for often fickle and routing army elements. Holding a medieval army together was no small task.

I loved the scenario notes that accompanied the game. They provide a level of detail that’s appropriate for understanding each scenario. As a result, the historical flavor of special rules are not lost on players who may be unfamiliar with the combatants or battle.

The King’s Justice…

Great Heathen Army is worthy of a place in your wargaming kingdom. While I’ve not played the other Shields & Swords II series games, I am more likely to do so having played this title. Players will go from box to their first scenario setup in maybe 30 minutes. There’s little need for the rulebook after the first full battle.

Scenarios take anywhere from 35 minutes to a little over an hour to complete. This is a fantastic game to teach someone about wargaming. It’s also a game to bring along to a non-wargaming game night. You may be able to rope someone into playing it. The vibrant counters, pungent Blue Panther scent, and low complexity are a recipe for success.

I highly recommend giving this game a try if you need something on the lighter end in your collection or want a game that you can pull off the shelf and play quickly.

We are still remembering the tragic loss of millions during the Great War which raged through November of 1918 and my sincere hope is that the centennial celebration of Armistice Day will serve as a moment for world leaders to recommit to peace as the first and only option in diplomacy. Great War Commander (hereafter GWC) was released in 2018 by Hexasim and transports the GMT Games Combat Commander series back in time to World War One. How did the series hold up through the changes required to make this jump? Read on and find out.

First, it is important to understand what this game is trying to achieve. It is a tactical squad-based game with infantry, support weapons such as the Hotchkiss MG, off-board artillery, and yes tanks which make their appearance in late war scenarios. The 12 maps that come with the game are non-geomorphic and therefore cannot be combined to diversify the terrain or create epic-sized battles. In fact, each map could have been bigger, but many of the repetitive game tracks are printed along one edge rather than being printed on a separate player aid card as in Combat Commander.

Players take the role of a commander for the French, American, or Imperial German nations. No British? Correct! My suspicion is that they will be included alongside other missing powers like Italy and Russia in a forthcoming expansion. Players command anywhere from 12 to 30 units taking turns playing a random hand of cards that contain actions, events, and dice rolls.

I won’t get into the mechanics here except where necessary, but they work well. One of the issues many players who didn’t like Combat reported was the lack of necessary actions to do anything meaningful during their action phase which lead to a lot of missed opportunities and discarding cards that could have been valuable in conjunction with coveted move or rally cards. GWC handles this by including fewer so-called dead cards. In the half dozen scenarios I played this was an issue maybe once or twice and was fixed during the first discard and draw I took.

Players use these cards in order to attack or defend (and usually a little bit of both) the five objectives that are pre-printed on the map. What keeps this exciting is the random chit pull for the value of the objectives. Some objectives may be worth just 1 point, but other objective chits increase their value to 3 or 5. Some objectives provide additional value to exiting friendly units off the board. Scenarios define specific objectives that are open to both players to use and see while players randomly draw secret objectives as well which can dramatically shift the balance of victory points.

While we are on the subject of victory points, the system uses a base-zero victory point slider meaning that the armies share the same number of victory points when the victory points total is zero.  When one army has additional victory points then the marker counts up from zero to account for the difference. I like this method because it provides players with an opportunity to see their relative performance rather than an arbitrary victory point score.

Because the game features an incredible amount of. Randomization, I think it is important to note how turns end.  Players draw cards for their hands, the size of which is determined by the scenario and the role that the army is playing. Attackers, for example, get 6 cards while defenders only receive 4. Inside this, there are limits to the number of orders that can be issued per side and how many cards that side can discard at a time. During the meat of the game, players will play cards from their hands and draw cards to both resolve those actions and replenish their hand size. At times there are keywords that trigger random events, snipers, and the turn end.

That means that scenario length can be quite variable, but even replaying scenarios didn’t reveal any shortcomings. It is clear that quality playtesting helped address this when fine-tuning scenarios which rarely were decided by more than 5 points. In fact, the core game mechanics are as strong here as they were in Combat Commander and the adjustments in orders give this game a feel like the stories shared by Rommel in his seminal Infantry Attacks which outlines small unit actions of the First World War.

Strategy Cards

Great War Commander - Strategy Cards

Great War Commander – Strategy Cards

One of the innovations that Great War Commander brings to the Combat Commander formula is the Strategy Card which provides the players with a one-time bonus. This bonus might take the form of a die roll modifier in the attack or defense, or it might grant your forces a special action. Cards are drawn at random from a small pool of Strategy Cards and are a welcome wildcard addition to the game. There’s nothing more disappointing than seeing someone commit to close combat only to have them play a card that effectively gives them the ambush action for that combat. I love this little tweak to the gameplay and find that it gives forces a national identity that doesn’t need to be memorized or cataloged on a player aid card.

So, how about those tanks?

Great War Commander - Tanks On The Move

Great War Commander – Tanks On The Move

Simply put, tanks add some additional complexity to the game and showcase the show-stopping power of these new and frequently faulty war machines. Tanks span two hexes and lumber forward with showstopping power and range. Their two guns give them unparalleled dominance in terms of firepower. That said, the tanks must pass a bog check and upon the destruction of the first tank in the platoon, they must be individually activated and lose the ability to platoon activate making them slower. On top of that, tanks are prone to bogging in the shell holes that litter the maps in which they are featured. As a result, tanks can be stopped not by enemy artillery or mortar fire, but instead because they throw a track or get stuck in some other way.

The range of the tank’s weapons and the fact that a fire command allows them to engage with multiple targets makes their deadly force that much more intimidating on the battlefield. In fact, tanks that bog even part of the way across the no-mans-land of trench warfare scenarios can bring devastating power to bear on the enemy. It’s hard to imagine a force more deadly within the game, but there remains one thing even more fearsome: artillery.

King of the Battlefield

That’s right, the impact of artillery upon World War I cannot be undersold. From the opening madness inside the Belgium forts at Liege to the devastated landscapes familiar to anyone with a passing interest in the conflict artillery literally reshaped modern warfare. The evolution of air combat was, at first, an attempt to bring more accurate artillery to bear on enemy trenches and positions. Aircraft were scouts before they were fighters after all. Artillery is readily accessible, accurate, and deadly in GWC to the point where I have to wonder why were World War I battlefields littered with shell holes if artillery was this effective? The process of laying down a barrage is quite simple:

  1. Play the Artillery Request card
  2. Roll for accuracy
  3. Place the round in the hex where it lands AND the six surrounding hexes
  4. Resolve attacks per the artillery caliber on each of the hexes.

This is a quick, streamlined process that facilitates drama and devastation. It is, however, seemingly too accurate and powerful for something that occurs fairly frequently within the player decks. In fact, I ended up creating a slight adjustment to the rules to make it a little less devastating by using leadership as a modifier for the attacks. Leaders in GWC have a 1, 2, or 3 leadership rating. As a result, I recommend altering the accuracy check to be colored die multiplied by white die MINUS the difference between 3 and the leadership rating of the leader commanding the formation making the attack. This, of course, relies on a few things…the first is that Artillery Requests don’t actually activate a unit or formation they just use a unit as the spotter, so I’m creating some overhead by saying that spotter must be in command range AND that you use the leader who would command that unit for the leadership rating.

In the end, this process altered the chances just enough to make the shots a little more unpredictable which helps units from getting into knife-fight range and then calling down artillery in preparation for an Offensive card play that will overrun an injured enemy. There is enough risk-reward built into the game already and using artillery as a “sure thing” just didn’t sit well with me in my playthroughs. I’m torn in that I recognize the importance of artillery and how it shaped World War I tactics, strategy, and the evolution of aerial combat, but by the same token in terms of the scope of the game it didn’t feel quite right. I will always recommend playing the rules as written to get started, but my variant might help address your concerns if you continue to have them as I did.

Finally, I want to address the maps which are gorgeous works of art in every respect. Unfortunately, GWC adopted the fixed on-map objectives from Combat Commander. The nature of trench warfare, however, doesn’t necessarily lend itself to these fixed objectives and though the scenarios presented are interesting for both sides, there’s little room to build your own scenarios that will be as interesting. One of the things that has generally separated long-term success versus short-term success for tactical games is how active the community is in building content to support the game. In the case of Advanced Squad Leader I have five 3″ binders full of scenarios both official and third-party produced. The steady stream of new content takes advantage of geomorphic maps and the ability to truly customize the game to fit the needs of a specific scenario. In GWC’s case, the maps themselves are a fantastic cross-section of World War I terrain, but the fixed objectives means that similar patterns of gameplay and defensive points will naturally remain the same between scenarios. The random selection of objective values and modifiers changes the pattern, but only slightly.

Take to the Skies

Great War Commander - Map Detail

Great War Commander – Map Detail

I mentioned aircraft and they are in Great War Commander to provide close air support through strafing and bombing runs. There are even little fighter plane tokens to mark your attacks. Ultimately, this felt a little tacked on, but was a fun way to give the game three-dimensions and though the use of air support was never decisive, it was exciting. Planes, depending on the year, can make bombing runs which attacks a single hex, or a strafing run which attacks adjacent hexes. Both attacks have their own combat factors, but the activation of the aircraft never feels like it costs anything. It’s just a bonus to what’s already going on, almost like a random event rather than the calculated arrival of close air support which one might expect at this level. After all, the combat is tactical so the chances that a single plane would suddenly appear at this point and this moment to strafe seems like a matter of convenience here rather than a matter of necessity otherwise it might be more frequent or impactful given the nature of the air war in World War I.

Conclusion

Great War Commander is a ton of fun, but it’s fun that requires you turn off your analytical/historical brain for a moment to revel in the great scenarios and gameplay. The underlying core is exciting and many of the “shortcomings” from Combat Commander have been addressed. The feeling of an empty-hand is all but eliminated and the new elements like artillery, aircraft, and tanks all provide necessary World War I flavor even if they aren’t perfectly implemented. GWC clearly respects its predecessor, but in some ways that may have held it back from truly transforming the Combat Commander system into something spectacular and fresh. New ideas are a great start, and the presentation is top notch, but once the scenarios are played and the game returns to the shelf, it’s hard to imagine pulling it back out until the expansion (if there is one) comes along with new challenges. In the interim, my sincere hope is that the designers rethink both artillery and aircraft to give them a more historic context. Tanks, for all their shortcomings in the games, are incredibly fun and add a new dimension to problem solving on attack and defense. If you’re a World War I buff who needs every World War I game that comes out, then this is your game. If you’re on the fence and love Combat Commander then you might give this one a try before diving in headfirst. It’s a great lightweight World War I skinned game that gets just enough right to keep my interest though.

 

It’s hard to picture what 24 year old Calvin A. Haynes might have imagined when he left his home in what is now East Nassau New York to enlist in the Union Army during the summer of 1862. After all, he had a wife, a daughter, a home, and presumably the comforts of friends and family that you tend to gather over a life spent in one area. What is certain though is that almost a year later, Haynes would describe the aftermath of the battle of Gettysburg to his wife by simply saying, “I went over the field; such a sight I wish never to see again. Every conceivable wound that can be thought of was there…It is beyond the power of man to describe a battle field.”

Gettysburg Casualty

Gettysburg Casualty

Wargaming can be an almost clinical look at the tragic suffering of the men and women who fought or were swept up in the battles about which our games simulate. After all, it wasn’t long after Andean Abyss, the first COIN series title, that I was on an interview team for a Colombian who had fled his homeland because of escalating violence and threats by the FARC against his family. Surely, the citizens who witnessed the historical events laid out in the games that make up our hobby bear both physical and mental scars that they will struggle with throughout their lives. For, the citizens of Gettysburg, their homes were turned en masse into hospitals and scenes of the agony of war.

In a hobby crowded with games about Gettysburg, how does Battle Hymn stand out from the crowd? Simply put, it pairs the game with Pea Ridge, considered the “Gettysburg of the West,” and represents combat in as the visceral slaughter it was during this early-industrial revolution era combat. Designer Eric Lee Smith has managed to create a system in Battle  Hymn that both a) redefines how players need to consider the effectiveness of their fighting forces and b) could be one of the best American Civil War combat systems ever devised.

I will provide a few disclaimers here, as I do with most of my reviews. I only played the Gettysburg battle and therefore I can only speak about how it worked, but the system itself is the same in both battles. I am not an American Civil War expert on par with many of you and so you’ll need to draw your own conclusions about the information presented herein. Finally, I only mention component quality if it stands out in some way either good or bad. In this case, I’ll get it out of the way and say that I love the maps for both scenarios as they are spectacular in capturing the look and feel of maps from this era. Beyond that, the components are solid and meet the needs of the game.

In the last ten years (since 2008) there have been 29 Gettysburg games released. Some deal with a specific aspect of the battle like the recently released Longstreet Attacks: The Second Day at Gettysburg, while others are surveys of the whole battle in varying levels of detail ranging from postcard-sized games, those which have received the Rachel Simmons treatment (Guns of Gettysburg), and even the grand tactical level of a monster like The Gamers’ Last Chance for Victory. In each game, the battle remains the same, the order of the battle is there, and the terrain follows the same broad strokes. The phases of Gettysburg are unmistakable.

Battle Hymn Detail

Unions cavalry encounters a steadily growing and overwhelming force of Confederate troops. Just as the cavalry is about to break, the I Corps of the Union Army shows up and stalls the initial Confederate push. As the first day wears on, the Union is forced back through town and on Culp’s Hill and Cemetery Ridge. More Confederates arrive and the whole battle seems like it’s going to go the Confederates who are now probing the flanks of the Union army. Miraculously, and overnight, the Union Army gets into place and the bloodiest fighting is found on the 2nd day as the Union reserves plug holes in the fish-hook shaped line they’ve established. When possible, the Union army is able to extend their lines and eventually, the Confederates attempt one last gasp offensive push to break through the Union lines. From there, it’s cleanup.

We’re familiar with this often repeated process and regardless of the scale presented, if you’re maneuvering units in and around Gettysburg the battle is a close fought thing the whole time. It is why I’m so attracted to the topic as a historical wargame! The problem is that each Gettysburg game is somewhat of a “been there done that” experience without something truly fresh and new. The Line of Battle treatment of Gettysburg in Last Chance for Victory provided the best grand tactical look at the game since GMT’s evolutionary release of the original Terrible Swift Sword in their 3rd Edition of Three Days at Gettysburg. That said, the attraction was in the details and calculating the primary weaponry of each side as a part of the combat resolution. For folks who wanted to get into the nuts and bolts (or the bolts and stocks as it were) of Gettysburg could do so in Last Chance for Victory. Guns of Gettysburg stands out as another experience that focused almost exclusively on the variability of the reinforcements and how/where they would enter the battlefield. It was an exciting and fresh take, but one that had dense rules that were difficult to parse and though noteworthy failed to find a rabid broad fanbase.

Eric Lee Smith’s own Across 5 Aprils from Victory Games marches these same fields back in 1992. Since then, Mr. Smith has had plenty of time to hone his understanding of what made that game great and what could be improved upon for Battle Hymn. The counter layout is similar and there are definite links to the prior game in Smith’s Battle Hymn, but the place where I think this game distinguishes itself is by bringing home the visceral nature of combat results in the American Civil War.

It is important to note that units take both manpower and morale damage in this game which combine to make units ineffective first and eliminated second. In game terms, units become shattered where all remaining manpower factors have been demoralized. Units are eliminated when they no longer have manpower factors left. That said combat doesn’t wear down the manpower factors as quickly as it wears down the morale of the units which represents a sort of unit morale and cohesion here. With that background, we can look a little closer at what this means in broad strokes first and then in more detail second.

From the player’s overall perspective this style of combat means that you are thinking about waves of units that must be staged in order to gain ground. Blood will pay for every hex once you make contact and before that with bombardment which steady wears down the morale of the advancing units from as far as 3 hexes away. As a result, the timing of combat is essential.

Battle Hymn relies on a chit pull unit activation system that works perfectly for both opposed and solitaire play. Turns are tense and having the initiative means your side gets to determine when they hold their combat turn rather than through random draw. This is critically important because there are times when you’re crossing your fingers to draw just one more brigade from your side so you can pull off a decisive multi-hex combat only to get your hopes dashed when your opponent pulls their combat chit from the cup. The whole game is dramatic in that way, even from the first turn which most folks can attest (aside from the Avalon Hill Gettysburg ’88 edition) is usually a snooze-fest of first steps onto the battlefield.

Battle Hymn - Chit Draw

Battle Hymn – Chit Draw

Much is abstracted in this game which means both quicker play and that the fluid turn structure keeps both players involved at all times. In some wargames, your opponent could be reading a book, sending some e-mails, or browsing Reddit while you take your turn. Though those games can be rich and full of fun, the downtime is kind of a bummer and is especially so when you’re trying to introduce the game to someone who might not be familiar with wargaming! Battle Hymn is a great way to introduce an American Civil War history buff to tabletop wargaming. They’ll be able to apply their knowledge, see expected outcomes and experience the wrath of poor die rolls and the ecstasy of pulling off a great maneuver and rolling well.

As each player plans their movements, they’re thinking after the first few turns about the fact that it’s pretty common to see your units suffer at least one demoralization increase and potentially even one strength point reduction. This means that each unit is a bit like a timer on the battlefield and you have to read the tea leaves for how long you think they can remain an effective fighting unit. They don’t rally during the day and days are at least 9 turns long with the first day at 11 one-hour turns. The math is as much about fighting effectiveness as it is about firepower.

While I generally don’t like to get into the details of game mechanics, I think since combat is the centerpiece of this review that I should at least give it a high-level overview.

When units move in this game, they are given an approach marker which effectively makes them more difficult to hit but does provide the defender facing them an opportunity to make a preemptive fire combat attempt. In many cases, both units involved in combat will have an approach marker on them. While it’s rare for this to cause massive damage, the initial phases of combat (Bombardment and Approach Fire) are intended to set up the overall effectiveness of the meat of the combat phase. Canons roar first and can only inflict demoralization increases, which in some cases for units defending on the edge can be the difference-maker. In one case, I had a Union I Corps unit defending on Culp’s hill following the retreat through Gettysburg and 6 combat factors of artillery blasted away from two hexes out at the unit. That was 6 die rolls and 2 of them resulted in hits by rolling 1’s. My poor morale checks sent my Union unit to the Shattered box.

Battle Hymn - Combat

Battle Hymn – Combat

Once the opening shots are traded, units make their actual combat checks with the defender’s terrain setting the to-hit number which is subsequently modified by hexside effects and unit types. For example, infantry firing on cavalry or artillery provide different modifiers. After that, all un-demoralized and remaining strength points roll a single d10. Anything equal to or less than the to-hit number lands a hit and the unit is marked with a hit marker to track those hits. In multi-hex combat, the firing unit must split it’s available strength points between the enemy units adjacent to it. This means that those long lines of Confederate and Union forces slamming into one another creates a chaotic rolling line of combat split only by gaps in the line. As such, that combat chit I mentioned before is often the difference maker in who has their forces in place to receive or launch an attack properly. Once hits have been allocated to both sides, the defender (side who didn’t play their combat turn chit) resolves their morale checks first which are modified by their unit’s inherent morale. This number also, equally, modifies the combat roll which is sometimes a negative thing for that unit.

The first failed morale check for fire combat is a loss of a strength point. Subsequent failures increase the demoralization level. As such, tending to the demoralization of units is absolutely key and retreats/retreat planning become essential. It’s possible for retreating units to cause a morale check in units behind the lines simply by being forced to rout through that unit’s hex. This can create a cascade of panic behind the lines if poorly planned.

As a result, when the first night finally arrives, the Union and to a lesser degree the Confederates, must attend to the specific units they need to see combat effective in the coming day. Players are faced with tough choices, do I want the unit who will be great in combat, but perhaps weaker at morale checks or do I want the units who can more easily avoid morale check failures but are weaker in combat? My experience is that a blend of these unit types are necessary to make the most of the forces at your disposal. It gives a great perspective on the battle because casualty management and the morale state of your army are at the forefront of your command decisions at all times. As a result, this is one of the best American Civil War games ever released in my opinion.

Smith’s work here is extraordinary. Though I struggled with the rules at first and am still not 100% certain I have everything figured out exactly, I can solidly say that Smith’s approach to combat and how he chose to create some ambiguity in terms of combat effectiveness is a smooth experience that allows you to play the game rather than fight the rules. The more experienced I get with wargaming the more I appreciate the hobby for its two, sometimes opposed, sides. The side the revels in the glory of minutia. That feeling when you’ve built a great strike force, deployed them well, and outfoxed your opponent based on the tiny details of the rules. You feel like the commander who had to deal with all the variables of combat and you’ve distinguished yourself! The other side of the hobby which is about the enjoyment of the history, fellowship, and measure player strategic thinking against one another in a fast-paced, almost chess-like environment. This game solidly meets the latter’s needs fully, but doesn’t totally ignore the person who wants to dig into the little details because of how the night turns are structured.

During the night turns, units have the option to rally rather than move since rallying consumes the unit’s entire movement. For units on the map, they need to be out of line of sight of an enemy and for units previously shattered this is their opportunity to return to play. That said, Smith made such a great design decision here by both not allowing a unit to ever fully recover since in the context of the compressed timeline that would have been unlikely and to tie how many SPs could return to a non-demoralized state to the unit’s morale. For those keeping score at home, that’s combat resolution, morale checks, and SPs that can rally all tied to the one morale factor on the counter.

Strong design means tackling an aspect of the topic with a clear vision and well-considered rules that get rid of anything that doesn’t pursue the central truth of the designer’s vision. Smith has done this here in his unrelenting presentation of American Civil War combat as a savage, bloody, and horrific event that spares no one and gets at the events Calvin Hayes saw upon that Pennsylvania battlefield nearly 155 years ago. Many American Civil War games have been released and many of those cover Gettysburg, but few leave a lasting impression about the carnage of warfare in the way Battle Hymn does. This is wargaming at its finest. It presents the players with the historical context, a fine game, and critically a lesson about the topic that lasts well beyond the time when the counters have been returned to their trays. Smith and Compass Games have a phenomenal start to a new wargame series on their hands and I cannot recommend this game highly enough.

 

Pendragon Cover

Pendragon Cover

Over the course of roughly fourteen generations, from 43 to 410 AD, the Romans ruled the island of Great Britain. Even they had trouble the unruly ancient Scots, the Picts, which proves a universal point. Nobody will ever understand the Scots. I suspect a combination of Irn-Bru and Buckfast are to blame. All joking aside, this is a complicated time period in the history of Great Britain and the approach that Morgane Gouyon-Rety has taken with Pendragon: The Fall of Roman Britain to introduce the end of this era is nothing short of perfection in cardboard and wood.

The many invasions of the shores of England prior to the well before the Norman Conquest were wholly unknown to me. I was aware of the Saxons. I was aware of the Romans in England because of Bath. I almost feel like any time someone mentions Bath, a middle-aged women is compelled to say, “It’s just lovely there. You really should go!” I think everyone has some comprehension of Hadrian’s Wall and maybe, to a lesser degree, about the various uprisings that the Romans were responsible for putting down during their 370’ish year rule. To that end, the two hefty booklets that arrive with your purchase of Pendragon include the InsideGMT blog entries that outline the design decisions and history of the era.

COIN games from the beginning have covered topics about which people are aware, but perhaps don’t have the full story. They have taken us from South America, to Asia, to North America and more recently to Europe. This multi-continental, era-independent system, has changed the way that I look at wargames and conflicts. The combination of political and military asymmetry presented in the games gives even well-worn topics like the American Revolutionary War a new feel that allows gamers and armchair historians a valuable new lens through which they can interact with the past. Critically, the COIN series has given us new published lead designers like Morgane Gouyon-Rety and topics that have fallen through the cracks of our hobby long enough.

The history covered in Pendragon provides gamers with an appreciation for the Land of Hope & Glory’s turbulent past. Just as the waves of the North Atlantic lap against its shores creating dramatic and gorgeous coastlines, the waves of invasions in Pendragon etch a no less beautiful narrative. At the macro-level, Pendragon pits the Britons who begin as unified Roman Dux and Civitates against the barbarian hordes of Scotti and Saxon raiders seeking to earn a foothold in the lush landscape of Britain.

Imperium Track

Imperium Track

The constant erosion of that Roman influence, stability, and harmony begins to create a new dynamic represented across the course of the game by Imperium Track which starts at Roman Rule, degrades to Autonomous Rules, and devolves into the complete factional fragmentation. The effects on the game for these changes make each epoch change to be a potential game changer, quite literally speaking. Britain feels like a unified land in the beginning of the game, but as the Dux (Roman) and Civitates (Briton) players race to deal with barbarian incursions, the roads feel like a critical lifeline. When the roads are no longer able to be maintained, the ease and speed of travel change the feel of the game in a profound way.

Eboracum to the Sea

Eboracum to the Sea

Compared to roads and lines of control in prior COIN titles, I have to say that I liked the Pendragon approach here. The roads feel alive and the whack-a-mole style of the early game is served well by their maintenance in the full game. As the roads degrade, the regions feel more isolated and the conflicts more visceral and immediate. It’s no longer the reverse trip of a hen party in ancient York (Eboracum) to the coast for a marriage, it’s a slog through the now entrenched barbarian countryside where it’s more than poor Vodaphone coverage that’s got you down!

It’s details like this that make Pendragon so worthwhile and they seem to sneak up on players around every corner. Pendragon takes the best of what’s come before and builds upon it. One of the best places to see this in the way combat is handled. No longer is the risk-style of trading pieces sufficient to settle an armed dispute. Combat is tactical, a welcome addition to the COIN series, and choices abound. While the initial learning curve for this new style of combat can be cumbersome both the example of play in the Playbook and the brilliantly laid out player aid card covering combat make it a snap.

Effectively there are three phases to combat. The pre-combat phase during which the combatants will determine if they’re going to try to run away or ambush each other. The field battle phase in which the defenders might sneak some of their forces off into the nearest hillfort or stronghold and the true power of the Dux cavalry can be brought to bear. Finally, you have the siege which has its own phases. Follow the flow-chart and the layout of the battle player aid card and you’ll be left wondering what mad genius dreamed up this combat system. The answer, of course, is Morgane Gouyon-Rety who packs what must be years of careful consideration into this mechanic alone.

The game is familiar enough though and contains some nice twists. You get the shared resources of a game like A Distant Plain. The game is more combat focused like Falling Skies. Barbarian forces, and occasionally Britons will plunder wealth which has links back to Cuba Libre. The game features casualty availability and “perma-death” as seen in Fire in the Lake. This game is both a student and a master of the COIN system. All that said, it’s the new additions that make this something special and showcase the incredible flexibility of the underlying COIN framework.

Pendragon Foederati

Pendragon Foederati

In fact, it’s hard not to marvel at the COIN framework when you consider this game both in the context of its predecessors, but also as it stands on its own with its unique stamp on the series. The Imperium Track, Naval invasion and sea patrol, Warband vs. Raider, Defensive Structures, recruiting barbarians to your cause as Foederati, plunder used in multiple ways, and of course the combat system. The funny thing is, everything finds its place and plays just as smoothly as any of the other COIN system games. In some ways, it makes me jealous every time I see someone new play this game for the first time. It’s just that good that experiencing it for the first time is a bit of a revelation.

I’ve gushed about this game quite a bit already. I also promised that my reviews wouldn’t take into account presentation unless it was worthy of specific mention. In this case, GMT Games has produced their most extravagant product to date. From the artwork to the custom castle and raider bits that are included in the game to the outrageous 70+ page full-color Playbook. There isn’t anything to critique about the presentation of the game, the rulebook, or the value at either the P500 discounted price or the full retail $99 price-point. Without question, gamers are soaking up every last cent of value from this game both in terms of gameplay and in terms of sheer production value. This could not have been a simple game to produce with the custom work that went into the pieces, but GMT Games makes it appear effortless.

Let’s talk for a moment about the solo game. I played two solo games in addition to my opposed plays. The bots are as on-point as ever and provide a sincerely difficult challenge. This time around, the bots get more custom rules than we’ve seen before including a massive fold-out two-page chart that includes specific instructions for specific event cards by faction. One of the weaknesses of bots in the past has been that while some guidance was provided for bots and how they would interact with events (usually through some kind of faction icon decoration), the bots didn’t capitalize on other faction weaknesses as aggressively. This has been put to bed. Bots follow the most aggressive pathway possible and, in using the bots for a solo game, you are training yourself to be a better player. This has always been true to some degree with previous COIN games. I would call out Fire in the Lake, for example, as a great showcase for learning to play the game from bots.

If my arm were truly twisted to come up with an area of improvement for this game, I might say that because of all the new sub-systems the game turns can run a little long. As a result, even though the event to epoch ratio seems the same as in prior games, this one feels like its longer between epoch (scoring turn) changes. Since so much of the game relies upon the recalibration of resources, renown, and in this game fundamental rule changes as a result of the rise of barbarians the game can feel like a slog as you begin to anticipate the next epoch card. That said, as soon as you see the epoch card, it is executed. That change is fantastic and appreciated because a game like Andean Abyss allows the players a little wiggle room prior to scoring to shore up any potential negative impacts since unit placement in that game, as in Pendragon, is important for epoch turns.

Overall

If you even need to read this section at this point, I’d be shocked. Frankly, this is the best COIN game released to date. Given the flood of 2nd Edition upgrade kits that just hit GMT Games P500 list, I suspect some of the lessons learned in this game will find their ways into earlier titles to help improve upon an already strong foundation.

GMT Games has extended their COIN empire, not unlike the ancient Romans, and we are witnessing the series at the apex of its power. While we have Gandhi, All Bridges Burning, People Power, and a bunch of 2nd editions on the way it’s without question that GMT and its stable of COIN developers / designers will have a tall task in front of them to equal Pendragon.

My hope is that we’ll see Morgane Gouyon-Rety continue to design games both COIN and otherwise into the future. Her approach and research seems methodical and the fruits of her labor are delicious to see and experience. Without question, Pendragon is already in the running for my 2018 game of the year and it will take a lot to dethrone it which is a big statement to make in the 1st quarter of the year!

Over the last few weeks, I’ve been feverishly playing through South China Sea from Compass Games LLC which was designed by John Gorkowski. The game is a descendant, of sorts, from Gorkowski’s previous game Breaking the Chains. That said, South China Sea is its own game and deserves your attention if the subject matter is one that captures your attention with every passing Freedom of Navigation operation like it does mine in this strategically important region.

As with other reviews, I want to offer full disclosure about what this review offers and how it was generated. I pre-ordered this game and it was not provided to me with the expectation of a review. I don’t call out rulebooks, components, or graphic design unless it significantly aids or hinders the gameplay. In effect, if some physical component or representation of the game is within the middle 2 standard deviations, I’m not even going to bother calling it out. There are unboxing videos, photos, and other ways for you to check that out and make a decision for yourself. Instead, I focus on the meat of why we buy and play these games…the gameplay!

Let’s start with a brief overview of the topic before we get started. The South China Sea is perhaps the most strategically important location in the world. According to a 2015 Department of Defense report, over $5 trillion dollars in goods travel through the sea each year. That represents about 30% global trade and even includes the transit of oil.

At the heart of the conflict are a series of disputed islets, islands, and sea area between China, Japan, Vietnam, Malaysia and the Philippines. Specifically, and most contentious right now is the conflict surrounding an island chain called the Spratly Islands. China claims historical territorial rights in the region which would extend their Economic Exclusion Zone and Territorial Waters claims through this critical region. It also would provide access to what US Energy Information Administration in 2013 claimed is no less than 100 billion cubic feet of natural gas and oil. While not a lot from a global perspective, it would nearly double China’s access to territorial natural gas.

Further heightening tensions is a landmark case in 2016 where a tribunal in the Hague ruled in favor of the Philippines that largely contested China’s so-called 9-dash line which asserted a territorial claim over a large swath of the Paracel Islands and the Spratlys. China immediately rejected this finding arguing that the tribunal had no jurisdiction to rule in the case since the tribunal was established to weigh in on maritime disputes and not territorial disputes.

China accelerated its process of building islets which could support military bases including runways long enough for non-carrier based aircraft. This is significant because to establish territorial claims, you must have habitable land. It can’t just be some picturesque little slice of paradise you call your own because 500 years ago there were indigenous people there. China has also sidestepped conventional controls by using its coast guard rather than its navy to patrol and maintain a maritime presence in the region even using the coast guard as a less offensive way of denying access to the disputed Jackson Shoal.

South China Sea - PLAN Moves to the Spratlys

The United States has been involved to ensure Freedom of Navigation which allows foreign navies to travel within 12 nautical miles of a territorial claim in the littoral waterways if they do not fire weapons, collect intelligence, and have their submarines surfaced among other requirements. These Freedom of Navigation (FON) operations help reinforce the US commitment to its allies in the region and challenge the territorial claims through naval diplomacy (though one wouldn’t be able to argue this is gunboat diplomacy).

The Peoples Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) continues to challenge and oppose flights, FON cruises and argues that these actions by the United States destabilize this already tense region of the world. The causes are old, the tensions are real, and this is a gross oversimplification of a much thornier problem, but it provides the necessary background to enjoy South China Sea and hopefully the remainder of my review.

South China Sea provides an excellent Order of Battle for China, Vietnam, Malaysia, the Philippines, and the United States who all operate vessels in this region. Further, the map provides a great view of the region from Hong Kong in the north and east through the northern portion of Malaysia in the south. While ground forces exist, this remains primarily a naval game and as such less attention is paid to each nation’s ground forces. Of note, the order of battle projects a little into the future and, as a result, we have operational Zumwalts and Liaoning with a compliment of the J-15 multirole fighters which are upfitted Sukhoi Su-33s at heart. All in all, it’s a solid representation of the old and the new with Virginia Class SSNs sailing under the waves and the old reliable Arleigh Burke FFGs sailing above.

South China Sea - Partial OOB

South China Sea – Partial OOB

Ships are rated on a handful of weapon systems that broadly define their roles.

  • Anti-Air (AA) – The ability of the platform to counter-attack air attacks. This is only found on aircraft counters.
  • Anti-Surface (A/S) – The traditional missile fleet combat that has characterized naval combat since the Arab-Israeli wars of the 1970s.
  • Anti-Submarine or Underwater in game terms (U) – The ability to fire anti-submarine torpedoes.
  • Anti-Ground (A/G) – The ability of the ship to fire against land-based targets. We’ll talk more about Land Attack Cruise Missiles (LACM) later.
  • Gun (G) – The shipboard guns useful in visual range combat.
South China Sea Player Aid Card Closeup

South China Sea Player Aid Card Closeup

Further, each ship is provided a movement factor, type (Sea, Ground, or Littoral), and a relative stealth rating typically between 0 – 3 for the surface fleet and 4 – 7 for submarines. In addition, each vessel is equipped with a missile defense rating and a torpedo rating. Of note, is area defense missile defense for systems like the Aegis.

South China Sea needs to make a few assumptions in order to achieve its goal of providing a playable game of a near-future conflict between what amounts to the largest powers in the region. The first and most important assumption must be made that both sides would immediately cripple each other’s satellite capabilities. The second is that some abstraction is necessary in order to provide a playable simulation. Individual weapon systems are not modeled beyond their ratings. Tactical fleet configurations are largely ignored. Tactical nuclear weapons are ruled out as viable weapons given that, in the unlikely state of conflict, the free passage of commerce would likely still need to occur through this region.

Each hex represents about 20 nautical miles from the center of the hex or roughly the distance you can see on a clear day at sea. Given the scale, units must spot each other through a process called illumination. Effectively, the Pacific is a big place and without satellite Intelligence, Surveillance, & Reconnaissance (ISR) it will be difficult to pin down a ship particularly if it’s not emitting some kind of signal signature. Each platform in the game whether land unit, aircraft, surface or underwater ship has a different range at which they can illuminate a target. Once, illuminated ALL platforms that are within range can take advantage of the situation and fire at the target. There is one last attempt for the target though, they can attempt to evade which is a factor of their stealth, distance from their aggressors and some dice.

Rather than re-hash this process, I have a little video you can watch that I made which shows this off better.

Combat, as you can see, is deadly. Each result higher than the target’s defensive rating is a step loss and outside the largest aircraft carriers, two or three hits are pretty much all she wrote for that platform. That’s one of the things I like most about this game. Every single combat can be devastating for your forces. The loss of a single ship can, at times, mean the difference between putting enough fire downrange to cripple the enemy or not. Changes in weapon range of only 1 hex can be a game changer. Players are forced to know their unit strengths and play toward them.

All the shooting in the world though doesn’t make this a significant change from what we saw in Gorkowski’s Breaking the Chains which covered a wider area and had a subsequent expansion pack that added additional scenarios and units. Instead, and what I think sets this game apart most is the political turns that precede the shooting. These turns might even prevent the shooting because they provide an opportunity in a multi-player setting to both play cards that disadvantage your adversaries or advantage your own position. As that happens, you are able to have actual face-to-face conversations around alignments.

South China Sea - Diplomatic Cards

South China Sea – Diplomatic Cards

Some cards, like economic sanctions, require that one of the minor powers (Vietnam, Malaysia, and the Philippines) must agree with your actions. Some actions can only be taken by major powers and some only by minor powers. Scenarios may immediately invest one smaller player like the Philippines when it comes to Johnson Shoal while others may not. Herein lies my only real critique of the game. If players are unwilling or wholly unfamiliar with the international dynamics of the region so they can interpret what’s in their country’s best interest they may not be willing partners. Further, the scenario setups themselves offer, largely, islet/shoal capture and force destruction as the victory points. Since there is a role-playing aspect to the game, if I feel like the US Navy has sufficient forces to reasonably achieve a limited victory on my behalf without my help…why would I join in? Further, if I’m the Chinese player, why would I risk the detente even if diplomatically I was suddenly losing when I know that my goals, per Xi Jinping, are long-term rather than short-term.

I understand all wargames require some waving of the hand. I’m not saying that what’s being asked here is unreasonable even. What I am suggesting, however, is that I would have liked to have more direction for players in how they operated that hurt them for remaining neutral when it was not in their best interest to do so.  The Philippines, in particular, can exert an insane amount of pressure on the US Navy by remaining neutral given the mechanics for moving units from Guam to the region which is necessary for the “big” scenario of the game entitled “Spratly Missile Crisis.”  In the end, it’s a pretty minor quibble.

The first three scenarios provide players with a step-by-step introduction to the political phase, surface warfare, and submarine operations. The last four scenarios ask you put that knowledge to use. That said, the “main dish” of this product is the fourth scenario which provides the guidance of the Spratly Missile Crisis. This game has the full OOB for the major and minor powers in the game while also exercising the special forces units afforded to each nation namely the Sea Dragons of the PLAN and the US Navy Seals. While this scenario is meaty enough to be replayed many dozens of times, I sort of wanted more. The variant scenario for it was the minor nations standing against China alone, which is sort of a grim warning showcasing how important US involvement with partner nations in the region actually is for stability. The last scenario is a nod to pop culture (00)7 Island of Dr. No. I didn’t actually play that one because I was wrapped up in the Spratly Missile Crisis scenario. I like the layout of the scenarios and the progression of knowledge that allows players to focus on specific aspects of the game prior to tackling a fully featured scenario.

It’s also worthwhile to note that the victory point track included with the game is a tug-of-war. Each scenario typically starts at 10 victory points. As the VP marker increases in value, the Chinese benefit while a move in the other direction benefits the United States. Interestingly, the small movement seen in most of the scenarios tends to benefit the regional minor powers like Malaysia on the Chinese side and Vietnam on the American side. This tug-of-war is also used in the political rounds to determine whether a roll for a military crisis needs to be made. It is entirely possible that a scenario with political turns won’t ever reach the military turns and that owes to smart card play, diplomacy, and more than a little luck. The mechanic works well because it simplifies the need for political engagement tracks for each nation and helps to showcase, again, the limited political victory likely for both the Chinese and American sides should a shooting war erupt.

Conclusion

South China Sea comes at the right moment with solid gameplay making it both topical and fun. The game benefits from an informed audience who comes into it knowing about the various claims in the South China Sea and a baked-in understanding of what is at stake with this region. To that end, I have to wonder if this game will get played in professional settings as a means to showcase the relationships between the political wrangling and potential carnage of an armed conflict around the Spratly islands. I can’t speak to the specific accuracy of the Order of Battle, but it certainly felt like the platforms involved from Patriot SAM batteries and special forces units through the various surface and underwater vessels felt accurate.

If the goal of the game is showcasing how important fleet readiness and strategic deployment will be in a hypothetical South China Sea showdown, this game shines. I am thoroughly impressed and whatever sour taste I had from Breaking the Chains a few years back is surely gone at this point. In fact, I’m considering putting Breaking the Chains back on the table to give it a second chance. South China Sea is undoubtedly my favorite modern hypothetical naval game. That sounds like I’m not saying much given that the Fleet series from Victory Games is nearly 30 years old, but the relative simplicity in the gameplay of South China Sea makes it approachable for a wider audience.

For folks who have any interest in this topic, I can’t think of a reason you wouldn’t want to find someone with the game and play it or buy it yourself to enjoy.

Flying Colors from Mike Nagel and GMT Games has been out now for over a decade.  Released in 2005, a later “deluxe” 2nd edition added thicker counters to the game and included errata fixes. The game covers fleet actions from the late 18th century into the very early 19th century and attempts to capture the feel of fleet actions in that time period. Subsequent expansions have added more ships, the War of 1812 and Imperial Russian naval actions against Sweden and Turkey. There are more commanders and ships than you could use in a lifetime!

I like to ask a few critical questions of games in my reviews rather than meander through each review. I don’t care too much about components, rulebooks, packaging, unless it prohibits enjoyment of the game. If you want to see what comes in the box, there are plenty of videos, pictures, and descriptions around the web to satiate your appetite. Flying Colors poses several problems that must be addressed to qualify it as a solid age of sail naval wargame.

The central question is whether or not the game encourages period appropriate fleet tactics. Does it discourage boarding, does it encourage the French to shoot for the rigging? Are there incentives for British to pound away between the wind and the waves? Does the game encourage battles to stay “line” battles or to strategically break the line when the moment is right? Does the game reflect the appropriate timing for a ship to strike and how is boarding handled?

It’s a tall order for any boardgame to touch upon each of these points. In fact, there are many games that cover this time period and topic. Few of those games, however, match the scope of the battles. For example, Wooden Ships & Iron Men is intended to provide a more tactical game of ship to ship combat with pre-plotted movement as a central gameplay mechanic. Close Action from Clash of Arms provides a more detailed version of Wooden Ships & Iron Men for those who want to dive even further into running your own ship. Fleet action games exist, but aren’t always from the right period. Nagel, for example, drew heavily upon the work of War Galley, a game from the Great Battles of History series, to get the feel of fleet actions. Frigate, a 1974 release from SPI, might be the closest in terms of scope and intent.

If we’re to seriously examine this game, then we need to first ask, “What constitutes a fleet level action from a ship-to-ship game?” After all, if I can cobble enough miniatures and people together I could use Wooden Ships & Iron Men to play out the Glorious First of June! True, and it is something that happens with Close Action. There is currently a game with 70 players who each control a ship going on that I’m a little bummed I missed out on this time. So, we can’t look at the number of ships involved as the sole determining factor. Flying Colors, after all, published rules and a map for ship-to-ship duels in the Serpents of the Seas expansion. The same is true of Frigate from SPI that has introductory scenarios that feature a handful of ships.

For me, the difference comes down to the way the rules enforce line combat. Flying Colors addresses this in two specific ways. The first is through the use of commanders placed aboard specific flagships in each scenario. The commanders have ratings for quality and command radius. While quality modifies initiative, which can be the difference between life and death in Flying Colors at times, it is command radius that matters more.

Command radius determines how big an area the commander can exert his influence in the battle. While ships remain in the line, the command radius can travel from ship to ship to help preserve the cohesion of the fleet. When the battle inevitably breaks down into chaotic action as one fleet attempts to break the other’s line, command radius helps reinforce the need to protect the flagship. Central to this is the concept of Formation Commands and ships acting out of command.

Tactical games don’t have a need for these concepts because one player is effectively controlling each ship as an independent captain would command it. In some fleet actions, this was very much the key to success. After all, one of Lord Nelson’s more enduring leadership lessons was to instill subordinates with the capacity to act according to his combat wishes. Summed up so well in the famous quote, “…in case signals can neither be seen or perfectly understood, no Captain can do very wrong if he places his ship alongside that of an enemy.” However, this independent action is not Nelson’s first priority as you can see in the quote. That initiative and guns blazing recommendation is, “…in case the signals can neither be seen or perfectly understood….”

Commands allow players to control many ships at once in Flying Colors. This is a massive advantage to controlling ships individually as command phases pass back and forth across the game. After all, if I can use one Formation Command to put six 74-gun broadsides into your ships, I’m nearly guaranteed victory. There’s no guarantee a ship can even act if it’s out of command. Each out of command ship must first roll against the fleet’s Audacity Rating to determine whether it may act. As you might imagine, the trick is how to ensure that your one or maybe two commanders have the range to retain their influence.

This is one of the best points of the game. It helps ensure that you keep your ships of the line in the line as long as possible. It also works to encourage the side without the weather gauge, in some scenarios, to work toward breaking the line. One of the best things about the game, however, is that it discourages “bumper boats.” In Wooden Ships & Iron Men, the rules seem to encourage a fair degree of banging ships together and boarding. This bumper boat style of play suits the kind of swashbuckling low-complexity approach to the topic that has made it so fun over the years. Historically speaking, it’s inaccurate. While boarding helped to secure prizes both merchant and military in nature, the approaches were carefully considered. After all, going bow first would just result in an uncomfortable tenure under bow raking fire sure to decimate any ship. Further, the bow of a ship in the 18th and early 19th century is its weakest point because of the joinery necessary to achieve the bow’s unique shape.

There are, of course, still rules, but it’s not without risk. In Flying Colors that means that the odds for a successful boarding aren’t as great as they are in Wooden Ships & Iron Men, but also because it’s no guarantee that you won’t foul the rigging and be able to cut away when you desire. The larger the ships involved, the more likely the ships are to become fouled.  Further, the ships must ensure they are successfully grappled together. There is an opportunity for the target ship to evade such an attempt, but once engaged in melee combat it’s a matter of an opposed roll based on the Marine values and rates of each ship.

I do want to take a moment here and say that the level of detail included in Flying Colors for something like grappling, evasion, collusion/fouled rigging, and melee combat is in odd contrast to the intent of retaining a fleet level combat game. It’s here, in these nooks and crannies of the rules that I think people begin to forget that the intent is to provide reasonable odds and systems for the handful of ships that might engage in melee combat rather than encouraging tangled fleets trying out “Nelson’s Patent Bridge” between three ships.

On the subject of combat and tactics, I am particularly fond of how Flying Colors handles gunnery. In order to resolve combat, the rules only require that you determine the firepower which is a combination of the range to the target and the firing ships rate and roll on a hit result table. The system, once you remember the modifiers of course, is straight forward and quickly managed. It’s one of the great joys of the game. There are hits for the rigging and for the hull as you might expect from a game like this.  The French are encouraged to fire at the rigging as they did historically and the British are encouraged to fire at the hull for similar reasons. The roll of the ship is managed by whether the shot is windward or leeward which adds bonuses and in most scenarios the French and British are aligned with their strengths already as they were historically.

My main critique of the game falls here. The French did historically try to take out the rigging of the British. It was not, however, for the reasons found within Flying Colors. It was to avoid or escape an engagement. If a squadron of ships found themselves being pursued and were somehow overtaken, it was advantageous for them to escape as quickly as possible. Knocking out rigging would afford them that opportunity and deny the British the ability to bring another supporting squadron into the battle. The scenarios in Flying Colors, however, provide that battle has been joined already. Rigging hits are staggeringly powerful in game terms.

A ship must strike its colors (surrender) if it meets either criteria below:

  • It has been dismasted and is within 5 hexes of an enemy ship.
  • It has fewer than three hull hits remaining due to damage.

Once the criteria are met, they will roll on the “Strike Table” which says that a ship rolling because of hull damage only needs 4 or more while a ship rolling because of rigging damage only needs a 6 or more. This is also where the commander comes into play and the fleet’s Audacity rating which acts as a de facto commander rating on non-flagships because both the Command Quality of the commander and the fleet audacity are subtracted from the roll. In most scenarios, Audacity is between 1 and 3. So the average ship, once dismasted has a fairly good chance of striking. This is further exacerbated by the Hit Results Table which makes it easier to get rigging damage than hull damage for good reason.

I’m not sure what the solution to this would be. When 750 pounds of shot come scorching through the air above the decks, that lead will rip holes and tear cordage! As the British player, it can feel unfair on an emotional level. That said, I’m not convinced that it influences scenario outcomes. It may be specific instances where a British ship has failed to stay in command or lay down enough weight in shot at their target first. Rigging hits slow a ship down, but hull hits reduce a ship’s rate which lowers the damage they do AND makes them more vulnerable to capture.

This is a lot of detail, but what does it all mean about Flying Colors and its expansions?

Flying Colors is, without question, my favorite age of sail boardgame. The game’s map can get cluttered at time with chits and markers. However, you can use separate tracking sheets rather than putting the tokens on the map. Some people even play with miniatures. The record-keeping nonsense aside, nothing gives me a more authentic feel than this game has over the past 7 years since I first got my copy. I am looking forward to GMT Games next expansion for the series called Under a Southern Cross which takes us to South American AND…where we get to see Jack Aubrey himself in action! Well, not quite Jack Aubrey, but the real life gentleman upon whom the character was based, Thomas Cochrane.  Here I am next to Cochrane’s uniform and personal effects in Edinborough from July 2017.

Lord Cochrane and Me!

Lord Cochrane and Me!

 

Operation Market Garden is a well covered wargaming topic.  Others that rank higher include Bulge, Gettysburg, Normandy, Stalingrad, and Waterloo. As a result, there is a deep roster of fantastic designs at all kinds of scales. Few of those games have been poorly received which makes it even more complicated to place this game in their midst without an encyclopedic knowledge of the other games.  As a result, this review will not attempt to rank or compare other Market Garden games to each other. Instead, I’ll be looking at this game solely based on its own merits.

First, though I think we need to establish what the review criteria are going to be for a Market Garden game. After all, what measuring stick do we use outside of just fun (and it is that) if we don’t pick out a few criteria. The essential questions a Market Garden game must answer for me are:

  1. Does the game capture the scale and fragility of the airborne landings?
  2. Does the game force the allied player to move quicker than they would like with the 30th to get them northward?
  3. Does the game provide the Germans with ample reinforcements of increasing strength over the course of the game?
  4. Does the game have a solution for blown bridges and have a fail-safe that provides for the possibility of success in a worst-case bridge scenario (all bridges blown)?
  5. Does the game model supply (and critically the lack thereof) in a reasonable way that hurts, but doesn’t wholly cripple the allied forces?

There are other criteria for a game to successful as a game, but for a Market Garden game to succeed, it must first check at least these checkboxes for me. So, let’s dive in!

Airborne landings are handled smartly with regard for flexibility of drop zones increasing as time goes on while also increasing the difficulty of contested drops. The scattered mechanic limiting movement and combat factors is a sensible approach that temporarily, and at the regiment’s most critical moment, stings the allied player. German players will be challenged to balance holding/blowing bridges and river crossings while contesting drop zones. Early on, the Germans will have the opportunity to roll and see if the 406th releases which has the quickest route to disrupt the 82nd Airborne’s drop zone and create enough force to stage the first meaningful counter-attack by the Germans. Even this opportunity is handled with care though. There’s only a 50/50 chance the 406th enters in turns 1 – 3. For the Germans this can be a huge boon or a hearty reinforcement in turn 4 that can add to the scheduled reinforcements for the area around Nijmegen.

As the game progresses, protecting the drop zones and retaining airborne supply units is a full time job. This is particularly the case around Arnhem with the British 1st Airborne Division who quickly find themselves surrounded and besieged. At first, these are weak German piecemeal reinforcements, but quickly turn into armored opposition and full strength German regiments ready to tear up the Red Devils. I tried both keeping a large defensive perimeter in the woods northwest of Arnhem and falling back into a small defensive perimeter in  Arnhem and found both problematic. In terms of ensuring a successful reinforcement landing in turn 3, it’s important to hold out near the drop zones or the allied player is likely to suffer S-1 or even the dreaded S-2 drop results meaning scatted with one or two step reductions.

Speaking of step reductions, one of the great bits of chrome for airborne landings in the game is the ability of the airborne units to earn replacement steps based on their drop losses. Each division can only earn 1 replacement step per turn, but they quickly become necessary and the Germans though weak early on can land significant punches of their own with a bad die roll or an ill-advised and overly aggressive allied attack against a city hex.

So, does the game model the fragility and scale of the airborne landings? Without qualification, yes

Before we start looking at how the game models the British 30th Corp, let’s look for a moment at combat and Zones of Control. As with all Simonitch Campaign ‘XX designs the CRT is odds based and punishing. Equally important though is the concept of ZOC Bonds which effectively create barriers through which supply and enemy units cannot travel. ZOC Bonds also work a bit like Three Stooges movies. You might remember how someone would kneel behind an unsuspecting character while they’re startled and fall over backwards in retreat only to get dumped on their butt….The same is true in Simonitch’s ZOC Bonds. If a unit is forced to retreat through a ZOC bond, they are eliminated.

Understanding and using ZOC bonds is key to building an effective defense and to create static lines without requiring hundreds and hundreds of counters to pull it off on the map. They also increase the value of the CRT results which require retreat or give the option for determined defense which is also a significant choice. In certain situations, you may be afforded the opportunity to put up a determined defense which allows you a chance to stand your ground and fight. It is risky, but also can punch the attacker in the nose in a desperate defensive final stand. When faced with a retreat though it can sometimes be the far more attractive option.

It’s decisions like these that characterize the success of the fun in a Simonitch design. Whether it’s The Caucasus Campaign, France ’40, Ukraine ’43, Normandy ’44, or Ardennes ’44 you know that the tension in the history and design will remain because of these core principles that help characterize this ruleset. Further, each game has a great way of fulfilling the historical campaign’s unique flavor without invalidating the underlying ruleset established more than a decade ago.

Combat is risky, dangerous, and punishing for attackers who don’t bring sufficient force to bear. This is particularly evident in the required breakout by the 30th Corps who must race northward at breakneck speed to relieve first the 101st Airborne, then the 82nd Airborne, and finally rescue the Red Devils in Arnhem if they have enough steam left…or the Red Devils are left standing. An option for the 1st Airborne I had no considered is holding out until the airborne reinforcements could be landed and then slipping south to hang with the 82nd in Nijmegen only pushing northward again AFTER the 30th arrives.

That’s putting the cart before the horse though. The 30th starts at the southern end of the map and must breakout across a series of bridges. While I’ll cover bridges a bit more, it’s worthwhile to note that Holland ’44 does an admirable job of creating stress on the German AND allied player with the bridge demolition and rebuilding mechanics. After all, if it were too easy to blow the bridges or repair them for that matter, they wouldn’t be as important. They are, after all, key to the 30th getting northward to relieve the 1st Airborne in Arnhem!

The 30th looks stuck at first glance. A lot of firepower with very little room for maneuver and only a few well defended checkpoints against which they can throw that weight of arms. A mistake I made was screwing around with getting the right units in the right position. Throw your weight around blindly in the first turn. The negative combat modifiers and halving of your firepower are going to happen regardless and optimizing your attacks doesn’t actually get you all that much. Key to the success of the initial 30th assaults will be their artillery which gain extra column shifts in the first turn to help overcome the disadvantages. Use the rule helpers in that first turn or suffer mightily!

In subsequent games, I learned that there’s very little you can do wrong in the first turn other than not be aggressive as the allied player. The German player’s hands are tied as well in that first turn, but what they lack in combat stopping power they make up for in Traffic Marker stopping power. The main highway north is surrounded by woods and polder (a misery inducing terrain nightmare unique to this game) making off-road movement a literal slog. So, when the first three traffic markers hit the road and start their +2 Movement Cost punishment of the allied player, they can be devastating. As with other German “power” in the game, the German player starts with just 3, but grows to earn all 6 Traffic markers only removing one. They become less effective as time goes on so the three to start and six to finish seem appropriately strong throughout. Limits on placement mean you don’t run into them well ahead of your lead units or something awful like that.

So, once the 30th cross the Buccholdt-Terrenfals Canal and enter the Netherlands they need to dash to Eindhoven, their first destination in 3 additional turns. In the three games I played, allied players were not able to make this happen. In the one where I screwed up and was overly cautious, this was obviously not going to work, but even knowing I needed to get cooking didn’t help much. There are simply too many German units waiting in the wings that get dislocated and need to be removed that divert a lot of strength away from the main push and for an overly cautious player…too much strength. Again, it benefits the allied player to move swiftly with the knowledge that these German units are the Amuse Bouche of the German forces that are coming…

As the 30th does finally reach Eindhoven and weave its way north we can effectively answer the second challenge of the game design about the requirements of the 30th. Yes, you MUST move more swiftly than you’re probably comfortable moving. It’s evident why the task was too tall an order and failing some exceptionally good luck on the part of the allies, you’re unlikely to feel like you’re making good enough progress. Don’t get hung up on the deadlines set forth by the turn track though, you can exceed those limits later on depending on how well the Airborne divisions have occupied the “middle sector” of the battlefield which can be a bit gooey to get started.

In every game, I found that the Germans were able to put up a significant roadblock just south of Nijmegen and again in the town of Best or Son depending on where the allies try to make their push. So, the 30th is absolutely needed and siphoning off too many forces ruins any real chance of northerly advance.

This leads us to the third important question of the game: Can the German actually stand up to the onslaught of firepower they face through turns 7 or 8? After all, it’s just a math problem that the 30th will break out and that the Airborne will be able to have their way for a little while with the weak units on the map at the start of the game.  Even the clever hidden units aren’t much more than speed bumps for the allies early on in the game.

While German armor appears in turn 4 of the game, it’s not until turn 7 that the Germans get sufficient forces to start really making a difference.  In particular, the most vulnerable units are the 1st Airborne. I’ve alluded to my struggles with them already and the reason is quite simple. They have the largest and most contested distance between their drop zones and their target of Arnhem. Additionally, they have three separate and heavily trafficked reinforcement zones sitting in close proximity to either their drop zone or their target north of the Lower Rhine.

The Germans quickly establish their reinforcement staging areas from which they can push forward once they build up sufficient combat strength. Nijmegen and Arnhem are the two closest to the majority of the reinforcement areas constituting reinforcement zones F, G, H, I, J, and K. After turn 7 there are no more entries outside of B,C,D, and E for the most part.  I seem to recall there was one loner unit that comes straggling on late, but the entire western side of the map is ignored. Coupled with the 30th’s decision that they need to make around Son on how they’re going to travel north it means there is plenty of time for the Germans to set up.

In my games, Groesbeck became a staging area that was powerful enough to go uncontested, but kept launching bullets into Nijmegen until the 82nd was all but eliminated and just scampering around the map Out of Supply. The Germans only worthy opponent going into the night turn of September 20th was a combination of the 30th and 8th corps. I do have to admit though that I did not follow the AO requirements for the 12th Corps, 30th Corps, and 8th Corps through the 2100 row of hexes as a way to experiment with a faster breakout. I’m clearly not a good player here because it didn’t seem to do a whole lot in terms of racing up to meet the Germans or trying to meet strength with strength. Why would Simonitch include them if not to prevent odd CRT bedfellows?

So, in short answer to the problem of German strength increases as the game progresses the answer is yes. I almost feel like it’s a bit too strong, but then again, most of these German reinforcements are 3-5-3 and so they move a little slow and don’t individually pack a punch. Grouped together and launched as divisions rather than regiments they pack a nasty 1-2 knockout punch.

Let’s take a quick look at bridges now to answer the fourth challenge of the design. Simply put, the bridges are handled perfectly. On turn 1, the Germans are at a significant disadvantage. I was surprised by what a -1 modifier does, but it’s significant. In every single game that -1 modifier proved to be a lifesaver. After all, a missed opportunity for a blown bridge requires that the Germans rewire it.  Rewiring requires allied units not have the bridge in their ZOC. That, turns out, to be exactly the right amount of time to get to specific bridges to save them.

That said, on subsequent turns the sound of explosions can be heard across the countryside. It should be pointed out, since the rule is so early on in the rulebook that there are important fail-safes built into the game. The bridges at Nijmegen, Arnhem, and Westervoot cannot be blown. In each case, this would isolate the 1st Airborne to a degree that would assure their destruction beyond hope within a turn or two.

Bridging units are provided to the allies though and it’s important to keep an eye on where they’re at.  It’s one of the trickier little things to do when playing opposed. While your opponent can inspect stacks at any time, they’re probably not checking for those Bridging units if you bury them. However, if you leave them on top of the stack, then it’s clear where that stack may be headed. This is where the breakdown units can be handy to detach and spread out some stacks to try to conceal the direction of your assault and bridge repair efforts.

Finally, it should be noted that bridges aren’t the only way across water. There are also ferries that have their own pathetically small capacity. If you’ve ever seen A Bridge Too Far, you absolutely understand the risk and speed (or lack thereof) with these crossing types.  With this said, it should be clear that I am again strongly responding that yes, Holland ’44 masters the challenge of making the bridges valuable resources while still providing fail-safes that don’t completely isolate and kill off the 1st Airborne or 82nd Airborne solely because of gamey bridge demolition.

Our last consideration is supply. This is the easiest to answer. The Germans have it and in nearly all cases keep it. The allies need to be constantly worried about it and get cut off from it more regularly (at least in my inept playing). As a result, the importance and fragility of airborne supply is highlighted. Pretty early on, it can be attractive to spread out as far as your supply limits allow as the airborne units. However, it is equally apparent how vulnerable you’re leaving your supply source.

In two of my three games at least one airborne supply source was overrun and had to be reconstituted.  In Holland ’44 that means it arrives back in play the next turn (following a supply phase where everyone is out of supply). Another important note here is that airborne supply only lasts through turn 5.  At that point, and moving forward, they need to be able to trace traditional supply lines adding insanely difficult pressure to the 30th and 8th Corps racing north. Yes, artillery can still be supplied from these depleted supply heads, BUT if your units are at half-strength and can only move 2 hexes at a time, it means the Germans have a field day with your units.

In one particularly memorable playthrough the 82nd was holed up in Nijmegen. They had artillery support on defense and the Germans were assaulting. The odds after everything was said and done was 1:1 and the Germans still suffered an A1/DR result. The German lead unit took down a step which eliminated it and then instead of retreating those plucky All Americans went for the Determined Defense and rolled a 5. However, they had an Elite lead unit and Artillery in defense which made it a 7 and the German attackers were forced to lose ANOTHER step while the Americans held. It was triumphant to say the least.

Supply starts out a concern and grows into a full blown anxiety attack. To that end, I would say that its one of the best modeled components of this game and when taken in conjunction with the rest of Simonitch’s rules for Holland ’44 it becomes the foil for the other mechanisms that put pressure on the race to relieve Arnhem.

Conclusion

Without question, Holland ’44 is one of the best games of 2017. It was my second favorite and only fell to 2nd because I felt like Fields of Despair was more innovative. Holland ’44, however, hits every single I expected to find in a Market Garden game. In fact, the design exceeded my expectations by being approachable and deep. I’m most familiar with Ardennes ’44 from Simonitch and that game, at times, feels like it falls on Bulge narrative crutches. That’s not a bad thing for Ardennes ’44, but I wanted to see how Simonitch would tackle Market Garden.

It is something special and unique. I said I wouldn’t rank it against other Market Garden games, and I won’t, but even if you feel like this is “A Game Too Far” for the subject matter, then you’re robbing yourself of one of the best gaming experiences of 2017. I look forward to getting this one to the table again and Holland ’44 is certainly a game that both designer Mark Simonitch and GMT Games should be proud of given the tall order for making a compelling Market Garden game in such a well covered topic.